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A Comprehensive Guide To Different Types Of Pressure Vessels

A Comprehensive Guide To Different Types Of Pressure Vessels

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February 8, 2024

In industries where precision, dependability, and safety are paramount, industrial pressure vessels emerge as a discreet yet sturdy protector. The pressure vessels are closed containers that contain gases, liquids, or molten solids at pressures significantly different from ambient pressure. These pressure vessels are utilized in the oil and gas, chemical, power, and pharmaceutical industries for high-pressure reactions, separations, and storage.

Stalwart International has been a prominent producer of industrial pressure vessels for the chemical industry for years. Stalwart has established itself as a reliable partner for designing, fabricating, and supplying critical process equipment, such as chemical tanks, reactors, heat exchangers, etc. Within our state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities, we uphold stringent quality certifications, and our team of specialists ensures that every industrial pressure vessel we produce adheres meticulously to industry standards.

A Deep Dive Into Pressure Vessels

Pressure vessels are sealed containers designed to contain and withstand internal pressure significantly different from ambient pressure. Their primary functions include storing, transporting, and processing gases and liquids at high pressures and temperatures.

Due to the risks associated with operating at elevated pressures and temperatures, the design and manufacture of high-pressure vessels must prioritize safety. Complete compliance with design codes, such as ASME, PED, etc., is required to ensure vessels can withstand anticipated internal pressures without failing. It requires consideration of essential factors such as material selection, thickness calculations, nozzle loads and inspection & testing specifications.

In the chemical industry, tanks and vessels play a crucial role in several production and processing steps. From storing raw materials and chemicals to serving as reaction and mixing vessels, chemical containers are essential to the seamless operation of a plant. Their dependability is critical to minimize disruptions and production losses. As a reliable high-pressure vessel supplier, Stalwart International is committed to constructing high-quality vessels that conform to all statutory safety regulations to mitigate process risks.

Types of Pressure Vessels

The world of pressure vessels is extraordinarily diverse, each serving a distinct purpose in various industries. Let’s look at the various types of pressure vessels we design and manufacture at Stalwart International to meet your needs:

Vessel And Tanks

Vessels and tanks constitute an essential category of industrial pressure vessels used for storage, transportation, and process applications. They are designed to contain gases, vapours, liquids, and molten substances at pressures exceeding the atmospheres.

Various process vessels are used in the chemical industry to combine, react, and separate various chemicals. These high-pressure vessels are made of corrosion-resistant materials such as carbon steel, stainless steel, alloys, mild steel, Hastelloy, etc. Their capacities can range from a few litres to hundreds of kilolitres of liquid, depending on service requirements.

As an ASME ‘U’ Stamp certified company, we are authorized to design and manufacture industry pressure vessels operating at up to 60 bar pressures. Stalwart International is one of the top high-pressure vessel suppliers in the world. Our product line consists of hemispherical heads, ellipsoidal heads & flat heads pressure vessels with capacities of over 120 KL. We offer customised vessels involving suspended particles, slurries, and high-viscosity fluids. All vessels are designed per ASME codes to ensure the utmost safety standards.

Heat Exchangers

Heat exchangers are vital industrial pressure vessels that transfer heat without direct contact between two or more fluids. Shell and tube heat exchangers consist of tubes encased within a shell through which one fluid exchanges heat with another fluid passing externally over the tubes. Corrugated tube heat exchangers are more efficient due to the increased surface area afforded by the corrugated tubes.

Heat exchangers are utilized in numerous industries, including power generation, petrochemicals, HVAC, etc. For example, heat exchangers are used in oil refineries and petrochemical facilities during fractionation, cracking, and reforming operations. These procedures involve the transfer of heat to carry out endothermic reactions. They are also indispensable in thermal power plants, where boiler input water is preheated using exhaust gases before steam generation.

Stalwart International is a high-pressure vessel manufacturer that has refined the art of designing and manufacturing heat exchangers that meet stringent industry safety and performance standards. We specialize in different types of heat exchangers, like shell and tube, corrugated tube, double pipe type, finned tube type, floating head bundle type, etc. Our heat exchangers are designed to optimize heat transfer while maintaining the highest levels of integrity and efficiency across different industries, like food and beverage, metallurgy, oil and gas, and pharmaceutical.

Pressure Vessels Shapes and Designs

Pressure vessels span a spectrum of shapes and sizes, each tailored to specific design requirements, stored substances, available space, and budget considerations. While various materials can be used in construction, Stalwart International employs top-tier and stainless steel grades to ensure exceptional durability. Common pressure vessel shapes include cylindrical, spherical, horizontal, and vertical vessels.

Type Of Pressure Vessel Heads

Every specialized industry pressure vessel requires a customized ASME cap at both end. The head design depends entirely upon the application; different head types are sometimes required. Like in the brewery application, a specialized heat type requires a torispherical top head and a steep-coned bottom head. Here are four common shapes for pressure vessel heads:

Hemispherical Heads

Hemispherical heads are half-spherical and have the highest pressure resistance among vessel heads. Due to their curved geometry, hemispherical heads can withstand high internal pressures with minimal material thickness. They are frequently used in high-pressure vessels with pressures exceeding 15 bar.

Ellipsoidal Heads

Ellipsoidal heads have an elliptical shape that enables them to retain pressure effectively while requiring less material than hemispherical heads. Ellipsoidal heads are cost-effective for industrial pressure vessels operating in the 5- to 15-bar range.

Flat Or Torispherical Heads

Heads that are flat or dish-shaped have a solid surface that bulges outward due to internal pressure. Due to the increased thickness requirements, they are unsuitable for high-pressure applications exceeding 5 bar despite being the easiest to manufacture. In low-pressure storage tanks, flat nozzles are commonly used.

Conical Heads

The conical heads, with the shape of a concentric cone and a toroidal knuckle, are used as the bottom head of an industry pressure vessel to remove the internal materials and to connect two-stage vessels of varying diameters.

Trust Stalwart International For Your Pressure Vessel Needs

Industry pressure vessels from reputable manufacturers, such as Stalwart International, assure the safety and dependability of various industrial processes. Over the past four decades, as a prominent pressure vessel manufacturer in India, we have established a solid track record of successfully executing projects across industries such as oil & gas, petrochemicals, power, and pharmaceuticals. Moreover, we have successfully supplied our reliable process equipment to customers across 14 countries across 4 continents.

Whether a chemical storage tank or a complex heat exchanger, Stalwart can deliver high-quality products. Our qualified engineers are familiar with the latest codes and standards. Make Stalwart International your trusted partner in pressure vessels, and discover the impact engineering excellence can have on your operations. Visit our website today and discuss your special requirements with our experts to get a customized industry pressure vessel to accelerate your production process and growth!


Stalwart International is a process equipment manufacturer in India that aims to provide innovative solutions for your engineering needs. With our expertise, experience and excellence, we can help you achieve remarkable outcomes for your business.

Leaders of cutting-edge process equipment for diverse global sectors - manufactured and designed in India.

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